Electric car components and functions

Electric car components

There are many components of a car but in electric few components added to it. Imagine an average car has 30,000 parts which contain all parts such as maximum and minimum also.


Electric Car :

The electric car is not a new word which we are familiar with but it is famous now because electric cars are made nowadays and they are on road now.

The electric car is a car that runs on electricity that means it runs on the energy stored in it in the form of charges. Basically, it doesn’t require any oil such as petrol or diesel. So that electric cars are becoming popular in the present as prices of fuels increasing day by day.


Electric cars are known to be very efficient and they consume less energy making them environmentally friendly automobiles.

There are many components but here we will explain some important components of an electric car.

     Important Components Of Electric Car

  1. Electric Engine
  2. Battery
  3. Motor Controller
Let’s discuss the parts in more below.

1)Electric Motor(Engine)

All-electric vehicles have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine. As a normal car has a combustion engine then the electric motor in the electric car is called its engine because it doesn’t need any combustion engine as it does not require fuel to drive. This makes it a very reliable source of motive power.

Electric car components and functions
Electric motor -Electrical always

The electric engine is structured for use either AC or DC current. AC motors are less expensive and lighter compared to DC motors then we can prefer AC motors and it is useful. Although, an AC motor requires a technology that works with the help of a motor controller. If we use AC motors ten for using it refined or sophisticated then we have to connect a motor controller to it.

If we see what types of motor used in the making of an electric vehicle then we can see that three types of motors can be used in making an electric vehicle.

BLDC motor, brushed DC motor, AC induction Motor are the motors that can be used in the electric vehicle.

All of today’s hybrid cars use a BLDC motor. Green car manufacturers often prefer BLDC motors over the peak point efficiency is higher and rotor cooling is simpler.



The battery of an electric car can be charged through the use of ordinary grid electricity at a specialized power station. But aside from the conventional lithium-ion battery technologies, other major battery technologies can be used for electric cars.

· Lithium-Ion Batteries: This battery technology gives extra performance and range. However, it also carries the highest price tag.           

Electric car components and functions

Lithium-ion batteries are lighter than Lead-acid and Nickel-metal.

These are also the batteries used in digital cameras and smartphones.

 Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries: This battery technology provides a higher output and better 

performance but it costs much more than lead-acid batteries.

We need to charge our battery so that it can work properly. Just like petrol pumps there are charging

stations made available on any other locations so that we can charge our vehicle. That’s why electric vehicles are environmentally friendly because it uses renewable sources of energy.

Want to know about tesla battery technology ? click here …

3)Motor Controller

The motor controller of an electric car operates its complete operation and the distribution of its power at any given moment. It acts as a floodgate between the motor and batteries. This helps to monitor and regulates all key performance indications such as the vehicle’s operator, motor, battery, and accelerator pedal. It has a microprocessor that can limit or redirect current. It is used to either improve the mechanical performance of the car or suit the operator’s driving style. There are also more refined controllers which are capable of greater accuracy and thus, higher efficiency.


A motor controller is a very useful part because it controls the speed and various factors of the electric motor.

 Besides, the main components we will discuss a few other components such as

Regenerative Braking

As the electric car moves, the electric motor generates a forward momentum and it can be used to charge the batteries when you apply the brakes, which is commonly referred to as regenerative braking. It can recover up to about fifteen per cent of used energy for acceleration. Though this component is indeed effective, it cannot generate enough to fully recharge an electric car.


· Drive System

The function of the drive system is to transfer mechanical energy to the traction wheels, generating motion. An electric car does not require a conventional transmission. However, it has several internal configurations depending on the components in use. For example, some designs use multiple smaller motors that power each wheel individually. Large electric motors, on the other hand, may be coupled to the rear wheels using a differential housing.

· Power Inverter

The inverter functions to change the direct current (DC) on the battery into an alternating current (AC) and then this alternating current is used by an electric motor. Besides, the inverter on an electric car also has a function to change the AC current when regenerative braking to DC current and then used to recharge the battery. The type of inverter used in some electric car models is the bi-directional inverter category.


· Thermal System – 

Cooling (I): This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components.


· Charge Port (J): 

The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply to charge the traction battery pack.

So, This was all about the components of the electric car, if we forgot to mention any parts then let us know. Hope you guys enjoyed the article and you get information about electric cars.

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